Birth and Growth of Earthquake Engineering in the Early Years
Events in the late 19th century, and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Its Aftermath
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, interest in earthquake and their effects increased in Japan, Italy and the United States (Particularly California) (Freeman, 1932; Housner, 1984; Usami, 1988; Hudson, 1992; Elnashai, 2002). This was mainly a consequence of major earthquakes such as; in Japan, the 1855 Edo (usami, 1988); 1891 Mino Awari (Housner, 1984) and 1923 Kanto Eartquakes; in the United States, the 1906 in San Francisco, California and in Italy, the 1908 Messina.
According to Hu et al (1996) “Earthquake Engineering (EE) started at the end of the 19th century in Europe and afterward, EE developed in Japan at the beginning of the 20th century”. Usami (1988) stated “The professional practice of EE began after a severely damaging earthquake that struck Tokyo in 1855. Furthermore, Usami (1988) also indicated “in 1914, Sano, a Japanese engineer, marked the beginning of quantitative work in EE in Japan. Baca lebih lanjut →
The big goals or obsessions, the dreams that we want to get in our life, something that we do as leading deeds, commonly need a long time to reach. Dividing our goals on some targets is done to get our goals, afterward it distributed in the unit of time which is shorter. This method is done by some working principle, at least the following are :
We need a process
We can not reach our goals in the same time. Indeed, the goals must be made as stair and we climb it one by one. We must be made it even though these processes can not be done harder. When we do it hurried, commonly, we become the untidy person and we will fail. Baca lebih lanjut →
The topic writing in this book was about the basic problem of humanbeing, which really urged in this century. Even, it has been mused and discussed by our ancestors when they understood the aims of life. It was also possible that this problem would be everlasting and talking as far as the age of humanbeing.
(The Great Figures…)
This book was talking about how to create the perfect human. This concept appeared in every period. “insan kamil, seperman, ubermen” were terminologies which have ever been the historical icons in the world. These terminologies related with the humanbeing exsistences of philosophy problems. Baca lebih lanjut →
As missionary nation, United State and western nation stand by their commitments to human rights and democracy, and should try to influence other countries to move in their direction1. It makes us (Islamic People) becoming decline as the intellectual capacity and the moral problems.
1. The weakness within intellectual capacity (Al Jahlu).
The weakness within intellectual capacity required at least the following:
a. Dho’fut Tarbiyah (The weakness of education)
The weakness within formal education and informal education have felt by contemporary Islamic people. It have occurred as our education mental framework has used western philosophy. Furthermore, we didn’t use Islamic scientific conceptual scheme for the base of our mental framework, and it made us become the people who have scientifically and rationally approach to solve contemporary problems. Baca lebih lanjut →